Thursday, August 22, 2019

High School Education Essay Example for Free

High School Education Essay Education is perhaps the most important endeavor a person can attempt in their life. Studies show those who have a post high school degree of some kind will earn considerably more during their working years than those who don’t. Therefore the many young adults who don’t have a high school degree will be crippled in becoming successful in our workforce. In today’s society this has become a major problem in creating a better country as a whole. The ‘hard times’ that many people may have could be prevented by more preparation and education for the future simply because more education leads to greater success. Our schooling system needs to be confronted in providing a better education so that our children will bloom and create a better, more intelligent nation than today. Dropping out of high school puts people in a extenuating circumstance for the rest of their life. Without a high school education it basically cripples you in achieving success for yourself in the future. This widespread of dropouts and failures not only effects themselves but also the world around them by decreasing economic growth. â€Å"Conclusions shows that economic growth is directly related to education in each country. Investing in education rapidly grows economies and raises the average level of employment. † (Breton) Though many classes may seem inapplicable to the work force or a future career, there are skills developed such as group work, critical thinking, and exposure to disciplines that one would not otherwise study offers the potential for personal growth not found in everyday life and experience. This personal growth that is developed only through school proves that everyone must have a high school education. To create a better workforce and way of life I propose to enact federal policies and requirements for our schooling system. These policies would include more financial aid, and imply less inflexibility for high school students. â€Å"The federal role in education is limited. Because of the Tenth amendment, most education policy is decided at the state and local levels. † (Policy Overview) Changing from state to federal would be the first part of my solution. With the change in rule there would also be the policies enacted to ensure a better education. More financial aid would go to the school and students to provide a better education. From this financial you can expect higher teacher salaries, more teaching jobs, and a better learning environment. Implying less inflexibility for high school students could be many things. One would be having no states test to graduate, and instead have comprehensive exams by the school to test the knowledge and skills of their students. Also have the school to use teachers and counselors to be more involved in each students life for the struggles they may be having concerning necessities and school. Our high school education system is clearing not working and needs to be refined. The amount of people being able graduate needs to improve so that our nation as a whole can grow. By using my solution to this problem you can see a much better education system. The State role would be changed, and there would be a completely different education system to ensure everyone people graduate from high school. There would be no student failures, and dropouts from the policies enacted by a federal not state rule. From this you can see higher graduation rates leading to more economic growth for our country. â€Å"America found its growth hormone after the Second World War in the incredible educational success of the GI Bill. †(Bencini) Studies in education have proven that more education and reform leads to economic success and growth. My proposal to this problem would reform and create our society better as a whole, and make a more intelligent or sufficient world than today. Education is perhaps the most important endeavor a person can attempt, and dropping out of high school puts people in a extenuating circumstance for the rest of their life. This leads to less economic growth and higher unemployment rates that deprave our economy. To create a better workforce and way of life I propose to enact federal policies and requirements for our schooling system. This include more financial aid, and more inflexibility towards our school systems. We need to call for our politicians to improve our schooling system because the cause and effects of students not completing school leads to failure and less success. From more education leads to greater success so the key role in our nations future is our youths education. Works Cited

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Wine Wars Essay Example for Free

Wine Wars Essay Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old â€Å"We have the people, expertise, technology and commitment to gain global preeminence for Australian wine by 2025. It will come by anticipating the market, influencing consumer demand, and building on our strategy of sustainable growth. † — Sam Toley, CEO of Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. â€Å"By phasing out the buyback of excess wine and increasing incentives for farmers to uproot their vines, the EC reforms will only bring in the New World’s agro-industry model. We need to protect the age-old European model built on traditional vineyards. † — Jean-Louis Piton, Copa-Cogeca Farmers Association. In 2009, these two views reflected some of the very different sentiments unleashed by the fierce competitive battle raging between traditional wine makers and some new industry players as they fought for a share of the $230 billion global wine market. Many Old World wine producers—France, Italy, and Spain, for example—found themselves constrained by embedded wine-making traditions, restrictive industry regulations, and complex national and European Community legislation. This provided an opportunity for New World wine companies—from Australia, the United States, and Chile, for instance—to challenge the more established Old World producers by introducing innovations at every stage of the value chain. In the Beginning1 Grape growing and wine making have been human preoccupations at least since the times when ancient Egyptians and Greeks offered wine as tributes to dead pharaohs and tempestuous gods. It was under the Roman Empire that viticulture spread throughout the Mediterranean region, and almost every town had its local vineyards and wine was a peasant’s beverage to accompany everyday meals. By the Christian era, wine became part of liturgical services, and monasteries planted vines and built wineries. By the Middle Ages, the European nobility began planting vineyards as a mark of prestige, competing with one another in the quality of wine served at their tables – the first niche market for premium wine. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Christopher A. Bartlett prepared the original version of this case, â€Å"Global Wine Wars: New World Challenges Old (A),† HBS No. 303056, which is being replaced by this version prepared by the same author. This case was developed from published sources. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright  © 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www. hbsp. harvard. edu/educators. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School. 910-405 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old Wine Production Tending and harvesting grapes has always been labor intensive, and one worker could typically look after only a three hectare lot. (1 hectare. = 2. 47 acres) The introduction of vineyard horses in the early 19th century led to vines being planted in rows and to more efficient tending and allowed one person to work a plot of 7 hectares. Yet despite these efficiencies, vineyards became smaller, not larger. Over many centuries, small agricultural holdings were continually fragmented as land was parceled out by kings, taken in wars, or broken up through inheritance. During the French Revolution, many large estates were seized, divided, and sold at auction. And after 1815, the Napoleonic inheritance code prescribed how land had to be passed on to all rightful heirs. By the mid-19th century, the average holding in France was 5. 5 ha. and was still being subdivided. (In Italy, similar events left the average vineyard at 0. 8 ha. ) While the largest estates made their own wine, most small farmers sold their grapes to the local wine maker or vintner. With payment based on weight, there was little incentive to pursue quality by reducing yield. Some small growers formed cooperatives, hoping to participate in wine making’s downstream profit, but grape growing and wine making remained highly fragmented. Distribution and Marketing Traditionally, wine was sold in bulk to merchant traders—negociants in France—who often blended and bottled the product before distributing it. But poor roads and complex toll and tax systems made cross-border shipping extremely expensive. In the early 19th century, for example, a shipment of wine from Strasbourg to the Dutch border had to pass through 31 toll stations. 2 And since wine did not travel well, much of it spoiled on the long journeys. As a result, only the most sophisticated negociants could handle exports, and only the rich could afford the imported luxury. Late 18th century innovations such as mass production of glass bottles, the use of cork stoppers, and the development of pasteurization revolutionized the industry. With greater wine stability and longevity, distribution to distant markets and bottle aging of good vintages became the norm. Increased vine plantings and expanded production followed, and a global market for wine was born. Regulation and Classification As the industry developed, it became increasingly important to the cultural and economic life of the producing countries. By the mid-18th century in France, grape growing supported 1. 5 million families and an equal number in wine-related businesses. Eventually, it accounted for one-sixth of France’s total trading revenue, and was the country’s second-largest export. The industry’s growing cultural and economic importance attracted political attention, and with it, laws and regulations to control almost every aspect of wine making. For example, Germany’s 1644 wine classification scheme prescribed 65 classes of quality, with rules for everything from ripeness required for harvesting to minimum sugar content. (Even in 1971, a law was passed in Germany requiring a government panel to taste each vineyard’s annual vintage and assign it a quality level. 3) Similar regulations prescribing wine-making practices also existed in France and Italy. Rather than resisting such government classifications and controls, producers often supported and even augmented them as a way of differentiating their products and raising entry barriers. For example, the current French classification system was created by a Bordeaux committee prior to the 1855 Exposition in Paris. To help consumers identify their finest wines, they classified about 500 vineyards into five levels of quality, from premier cru (first growth) to cinquieme cru (fifth growth). 2 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old 910-405 Because it helped consumers sort through the complexity of a highly fragmented market, this marketing tool soon gained wide recognition, leading the government to codify and expand it in the Appellation d’Origin Controllee (AOC) laws of 1935. These laws also defined regional boundaries and set detailed and quite rigid standards for vineyards and wine makers. 4 Eventually, more than 300 AOC designations were authorized, from the well known (Saint Emilion or Beaujolais) to the obscure (Fitou or St. Peray). (A similar classification scheme was later introduced in Italy defining 213 Denominazione di Origne Controllate (or DOC) regions, each with regulations prescribing area, allowed grape varieties, yields, required growing practices, acceptable alcohol content, label design etc. 5) Later, other wine regions of France were given official recognition with the classification of Vins Delimites de Qualite Superieure (VDQS), but these were usually regarded as of lower rank than AOC wines. Below VDQS were Vins de Pays, or country wine inexpensive but very drinkable wines for French tables, and increasingly, for export. These categories were quite rigid with almost no movement across them. This was due to a belief that quality was linked to terroir, the almost mystical combination of soil, aspect, microclimate, rainfall, and cultivation that the French passionately believed gave the wine from each region— and indeed, each vineyard— its unique character. But terroir could not guarantee consistent quality. As an agricultural product, wine was always subject to the vagaries of weather and disease. In the last quarter of the 19th century, a deadly New World insect, phylloxera, devastated the French vine stock. From a production level of 500 million liters in 1876, output dropped to just 2 million liters in 1885. But a solution was found in an unexpected quarter: French vines were grafted onto phylloxera-resistant vine roots native to the United States and imported from the upstart Californian wine industry. It was the first time many in the Old World acknowledged the existence of a New World wine industry. It would not be the last. Stirrings in the New World Although insignificant in both size and reputation compared with the well-established industry in traditional wine-producing countries, vineyards and wine makers had been set up in many New World countries since the 18th century. In the United States, for example, Thomas Jefferson, an enthusiastic oenologist, became a leading voice for establishing vineyards in Virginia. And in Australia, vines were brought over along with the first fleet carrying convicts and settlers in 1788. Nascent wine industries were also developing at this time in Argentina, Chile, and South Africa, usually under the influence of immigrants from the Old World wine countries. Opening New Markets While climate and soil allowed grape growing to flourish in the New World, the consumption of wine in these countries varied widely. It became part of the national cultures in Argentina and Chile, where per capita annual consumption reached about 80 liters in Argentina and 50 liters in Chile in the 1960s. While such rates were well behind France and Italy, both of which boasted per capita consumption of 110–120 liters in this era, they were comparable with those of Spain. Other New World cultures did not embrace the new industry as quickly. In Australia, the hot climate and a dominant British heritage made beer the alcoholic beverage of preference, with wine being consumed mostly by Old World immigrants. The U. S. market was more complex. In keeping with the country’s central role in the rum trade, one segment of the population followed a tradition of drinking hard liquor. But another group reflected the country’s Puritan heritage and espoused temperance or abstinence. (As recently as 1994, a Gallup survey found that 45% of U. S. respondents did not drink at all, and 21% favored a renewal of prohibition. ) As a result, in the pre-World War II era, wine was largely made by and sold to European immigrant communities. 3 910-405 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old In the postwar era, however, demand for wine increased rapidly in the United States, Australia, and other New World producers. In the United States, for example, consumption grew from a postprohibition per capita level of 1 liter per annum to 9 liters by 2006. In Australia the rate of increase was even more rapid, from less than 2 liters in 1960 to 24 liters by 2006. This growth in consumption was coupled with a growing demand for higher quality wines, resulting in a boom in domestic demand that proved a boost for the young New World wine industry. Challenging Production Norms. On the back of the postwar economic boom, New World wine producers developed in an industry environment different from their European counterparts. First, suitable land was widely available and less expensive, allowing the growth of much more extensive vineyards. As a result, in 2006, the average vineyard holding in the United States was 213 hectares and in Australia 167 hectares, compared to an Italian average of 1. 3 hectares, and 7. 4 hectares in France. 6 Unconstrained by tradition, New World producers also began to experiment with grape growing and winemaking technology. In Australia, controlled drip irrigation allowed expansion into marginal land and reduced vintage variability. (In contrast, irrigation was strictly forbidden in France under AOC regulations. ) The larger vineyards also allowed the use of specialized equipment such as mechanical harvesters and mechanical pruners which greatly reduced labor costs. Innovation also extended into viniculture where New World producers pursued techniques such as night harvesting to maximize grape sugars, while innovative trellis systems permitted vines to be planted at twice the traditional density. Other experiments with fertilizers and pruning methods increased yield and improved grape flavor. These innovations, when coupled with typically sunny climates, freed New World farmers from many of the stresses of their counterparts in regions like Bordeaux where the rainy maritime climate made late autumn harvests risky, and held wine producers hostage to wide year-to-year vintage variations. New World wine companies also broke many wine making traditions. Large estates usually had on-site labs to provide analysis helpful in making growing and harvest decisions. In the 1990s, some experimented with a reverse osmosis technology to concentrate the juice (or must), ensuring a deepercolored, richer-tasting wine. (Ironically, the technique was developed in France, but most French producers deplored it as â€Å"removing the poetry of wine. † Needless to say, it was a forbidden practice under AOC regulations. ) New World wine makers also developed processes that allowed fermentation and aging to occur in huge, computer-controlled, stainless steel tanks rather than in traditional oak barrels. To provide oak flavor, some added oak chips while aging their popular priced wines—another practice strictly forbidden in most traditional-producing countries. The economic impact of these and other innovations became clear in a comparison of the costs of production in the Langedoc region of France with the Riverina district in Australia, both big producers of popular priced wines. The French cost per tonne of â‚ ¬238 was 74% higher than the Australian cost of â‚ ¬137. 7 And South American grape costs were even lower, driving down the price of popular premium wine in Europe to â‚ ¬2 a bottle, while the French vins de pays was priced above â‚ ¬3. (Exhibit 1 shows the cost composition of a bottle of French wine. ) Reinventing the Marketing Model Beyond their experiments in growing and winemaking, New World producers also innovated in packaging and marketing. While the European targeted the huge basic wine market by selling the popular liter bottle of vin de table, the Australians developed the innovative â€Å"wine-in-a-box† package. Employing a collapsible plastic bag in a compact cardboard box with a dispensing spigot, the box’s 4 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old 910-405 shape and weight not only saved shipping costs, it also made storage in the consumer’s refrigerator more convenient. More recently, Australian producers began replacing cork stoppers with screw caps, even on premium wines. The logic was based not just on economics, but also on the fact that many wines, particularly the delicate whites, were susceptible to spoiling if corks were deficient. From their earliest experiences in the marketplace, New World producers learned the value of differentiating their products and making them more appealing to palates unaccustomed to wine. Several early products developed for unsophisticated palates were wildly successful—Ripple in the United States and Barossa Pearl in Australia, for example—but were dismissed by connoisseurs as evidence of the New World’s inferior winemaking skills. Yet these experiments provided valuable lessons in branding and marketing— skills that were rare in this industry prior to the 1970s. With wine showing the potential for mass appeal, in 1977 Coca-Cola acquired Taylor California Cellars. Other experienced consumer marketers such as Nestle, Pillsbury, and Seagram followed, and conventional wisdom was that their sophisticated marketing techniques would finally crack the last major largely unbranded consumer product. But the challenge proved more difficult than expected, and within a decade the outsiders had sold out. Yet their influence endured in the consumer focused attitudes and the sophisticated marketing skills they left behind. The other major change driven by New World companies occurred in distribution. Historically, fragmented producers and tight government regulations had created a long, multilevel value chain, with service providers in many of the links lacking either the scale or the expertise to operate efficiently. (See Exhibit 2 for a representation. ) In contrast, the large New World wine companies typically controlled the full value chain, extracting margins at every level and retaining bargaining power with increasingly concentrated retailers. And because their name was on the final product, they controlled quality at every step. To traditionalists, the New World’s breaks with established grape-growing and wine-making ways were sacrilege. They argued that in the drive for efficiency and consistency, and in the desire to cater to less sophisticated palates, New World producers had lost the character that came with more variable vintages made in traditional ways. And they were shocked that many of these â€Å"engineered products† were sold using appellation names— Chablis, Burgundy, Champagne, and so on. In response, the European Community (EC) passed regulations making such practices illegal. New World wine makers gradually adjusted by identifying their wines by the grape variety used, and eventually consumers recognized and developed preferences defined by the varietal name—cabernet sauvignon versus merlot, or chardonnay versus sauvignon blanc, for example. Indeed, many seemed to find this easier to understand than trying to penetrate the many complex regional designations that each of the traditional wine-producing countries had promoted. The Judgment of Paris On May 24, 1976, in a publicity-seeking activity linked to America’s Bicentenary, a British wine merchant set up a blind-tasting panel to rate top wines from France and California. Despite the enormous home field advantage of an event held in Paris with a judging panel of nine French wine critics, the American entries took top honors in both the red and white competitions. When French producers complained that the so called â€Å"The Judgment of Paris† was rigged, a new judging was held two years later. Again, Californian wines triumphed. 8. The event was a watershed in the industry. The publicity raised awareness that the New World produced quality wines, to the great shock of those who dismissed their innovative approaches. It was also a wake-up call to traditional producers, many of whom began taking their new challengers 5 910-405 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old seriously for the first time. Finally, it gave confidence to New World producers that they could compete in global markets. In short, it was the bell for the opening round in a fight for export sales. Maturing Markets, Changing Demand â€Å"The Judgment of Paris† signaled the start of many disruptive changes in wine industry during the last quarter of the 20th century. More immediately alarming for most traditional producers was a pattern of declining demand that saw a 20% drop in worldwide consumption from 1970 to 1990, and a subsequent flattening of demand. When combined with radical changes in consumer tastes, consolidation in the distribution channels, and shifts in government support, these trends presented industry participants with an important new set of opportunities and threats. Changing Global Demand Patterns. The most dramatic decline in demand occurred in the highest-consumption countries, France and Italy. In the mid-1960s, per capita annual consumption in both countries was around 110 to 120 liters; by 2005 it was about 50 litres. Key causes of the decline were a younger generation’s different drinking preferences, an older generation’s concern about health issues, and stricter drunk-driving penalties. Simultaneously, steep declines occurred in other major of wine drinking cultures—Spain dropped from 60 liters to 35, Argentina from 80 to 30, and Chile from 50 to 15. (See Exhibit 3.). During the same period, demand was growing in many wine-importing countries, although not fast enough to offset losses in Old World wine countries. From 1966 to 2005, per capita annual consumption in the United Kingdom rose from 3 to 20 liters, in Belgium from 10 to 26 liters, and in Canada from 3 to 10 liters. Even more promising was the more recent growth of new markets, particularly in Asia where consumption in China, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and Thailand grew at double digit annual rates through the 1990s. In fact, by 2005, China had emerged as the worlds fifth wine consuming nation ahead of Spain, Argentina, and the U. K. (Exhibits 4 and 5 lists the world’s major consuming and producing nations). It was this shift in market demand that escalated the competition for export sales into a global wine war. (See Exhibit 6 for import and export data. ) Shift to Quality, Rise of Fashion Partially offsetting the overall volume decline was a growing demand for higher-quality wines. While the basic segment (less than $5 a bottle) still accounted for half the world market in volume, the premium ($5 to $7) and the super-premium ($7 to $14) now represented 40% of the total—and more than 50% of the market in younger markets such as the United States and Australia. (Exhibit 7 shows one version of price segmentation as defined by a leading industry analyst. ) The trend was worldwide. Even in Old World wine countries where total demand was in decline, consumption of premium wine kept rising. Despite government subsidies, per capita consumption of basic wine in the EU fell from 31 liters in 1985 to 18 liters in 2005, while demand for quality wine increased from 10 liters to 15 liters. In that same 20 year period, jug wine sales in the United States declined from 800 million to 600 million liters, while consumption of premium wines increased from 150 million to 600 million liters. With the shift to quality, a greater fashion element began to influence demand. The decline in importance of working families’ daily consumption of locally produced table wine was offset by upscale urban consumers who chose bottles on the basis of grape variety, vintage, source and increasingly fashion. The 1980s’ emphasis on lighter foods led to an increase in demand for white 6 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old 910-405 wines, making white wine spritzers (wine with soda water) a fashionable drink in the United States market. By the late 1980s, white wine represented over 75% of U. S. sales. This all changed following the 1991 publication of a medical report identifying red-wine as a partial explanation of the â€Å"French paradox†Ã¢â‚¬â€ low rates of heart disease in a population well known for its love of rich food. Featured on the U. S. television show 60 Minutes, the report soon led to an increase in demand, with red wine’s market share growing from 27% in 1991 to 43% five years later. Even within this broad trend of red versus white preference, the demand for different grape varieties also moved with fashion. During the white wine boom, chardonnay was the grape of choice, but by the late 1990s, Pinot Gris and Sauvignon Blanc were emerging white wine fashion favorites. In red wine, a love affair with Cabernet Sauvignon was followed by a mini-boom for Merlot, which in turn was succeeded by a demand spike for Pinot Noir. Such swings in fashion posed a problem for growers. Although vines had a productive life of 60 to 70 years, they typically took 3 to 4 years to produce their first harvest, 5 to 7 years to reach full productive capacity, and 35 years to produce top quality grapes. But New World wine regions had the capacity and the regulatory freedom to plant new varieties in new vineyards and could respond. For example, in the 1990s, the California acreage planted with chardonnay increased 36%, and merlot plantings increased 31%. As these various demand trends continued, the rankings of the world’s top wine companies underwent radical change. Despite their relative newness and the comparative smallness of their home markets, New World companies took nine slots in a list of the worlds top 15 wine companies, a list previously dominated by Old World companies. (See Exhibit 8 for the listing). Increasing Distribution Power Because marketing had typically been handled by their negociants, most Old World producers were still isolated from such fast-changing consumer tastes and market trends—particularly when they occurred in distant export markets. Equally problematic was their lack of understanding of the rapidly concentrating retail channels. In contrast, because most large New World wine companies controlled their distribution chain from the vineyard to the retailer, they were able to sense changes in consumer preferences and respond to shifts in distribution channels. Furthermore, the New World companies were able to capture even more economic advantage by him and reducing handling stages, holding less inventory, and capturing the intermediaries’ markup. Even the transportation economics that once favored European suppliers’ proximity to the huge United Kingdom market changed. As trucking costs rose, container-ship rates fell, making the cost of shipping wine from Australia to the UK about the same as trucking it from the south of France. Size also gave New World companies bargaining power in the sophisticated negotiations that a concentrated retail sector now demanded. For example, following the huge wine surpluses flooding the market in the early 2000s, Australian producers used their cost advantage to drive prices lower. But equally important in the battle for volume sales was their ability to respond to retailers’ need for a consistent supply of strong brands at a good price/quality ratio. 9 In the face of this head-on competitive challenge, the French tried to defend their position through frequent promotions. 10 But they were hampered by their lack of consumer knowledge and marketing skills. The Old World suppliers’ problems became clear from their dealings with Tesco, the worlds largest wine retailer with wine sales of ? 1. 5 billion in 2007. To maximize sales, Tesco emphasized that it wanted to work with creative suppliers. Dont just bring the deals, bring me innovation,† said Dan 7 910-405 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old Jago, Tesco’s Wine, Beer, and Spirits division head. If you want your prices to rise, you have to persuade customers why they should pay more. 11 While a handful of icon brands prospered at the top of the market based on image and quality, the fragmentation of Old World vineyards forced most to compete at the low end on price. When some chose to take on the New World brands under the umbrella of the AOC’s reputation, it soon became clear that they lacked the skills or resources to succeed in the last growth middle market. Tesco’s Jago complained that despite its once strong reputation, the Bordeaux â€Å"brand† was losing sway with younger consumers. Heaven knows Ive tried to help them, but our consumers have such infinite choice that they dont need to make [Bordeaux] part of it. 12 Ascendancy in of Brand Power. For years, the wine industry appeared ripe for branding. The extreme fragmentation of the European industry (Bordeaux alone had 20,000 producers) meant that few had the volume to support a branding strategy. Historically, only the handful of Old World producers whose wines achieved icon status—Lafite, Veuve Cliquot, and Chateau d’Yquem, for example—were recognized brands. But these appealed to the elite, who represented only a tiny fraction of the global market. In providing the consumer confidence that branding offers, government-supported classifications such as France’s AOC had been only partially successful. Their value was weakened not only by their complexity (in 2009 there were 327 designated AOC regions), but also by the erosion of consumers’ confidence in the classification scheme as an assurance of quality13. For example, Burgundy’s most famous vineyard, Chambertin, had its 32 acres divided among 23 proprietors. While most produced the high-quality wine that had earned its grand cru status, others rode on that reputation to sell—at $150 a bottle— legitimately labeled Chambertin that wine critic Robert Parker described as â€Å"thin, watery, and a complete rip-off. †14 As interest in wine extended beyond educated connoisseurs, new consumers in the fast-growing premium wine segment were faced with hundreds of options and often insufficient knowledge to make an informed—or even a comfortable—choice. Government classification schemes required them to have an understanding of the intricacies of region, vintage, and vineyard reputation, and even if they found a wine they liked, chances were that by their next purchase, that producer was not stocked or the new vintage was less appealing. Unsurprisingly, survey data in the early 1990s showed that 65% of shoppers had no idea what they would choose when they entered a wine store. Yet even in 2009, despite many attempts, no brand had been able to capture as much as 1% of the global wine market, in contrast to soft drinks, beer, and liquor, where global brands were dominant. Although European producers and their importing agents had successfully launched several mass appeal brands in the 1960s and 1970s (e. g., Blue Nun, Mateus, Liebfraumilch), a decade later New World producers had made branding a routine part of wine marketing. For example, by sourcing grapes from multiple vineyards and regions, Australian wine maker Penfolds built trust in its products by ensuring the vintage-to-vintage consistency that branding demanded. It then leveraged its trusted brand name by creating a hierarchy of Penfolds wines that allowed consumers to move up each step from $9 to $185 wines as their tastes—and their budgets–developed. (See Exhibit 9. ) New World producers who built their marketing expertise in their home markets during the 1960s and 1970s, learned how to respond to consumer preferences for the simpler, more fruit-driven wines that were easy to appreciate. They then took those wines and the marketing and branding skills they had developed at home into the export markets. By 2007, New World companies claimed 14 of the world’s top 20 wine brands. (See Exhibit 10). 8 Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old 910-405. The Government Solution The radical shifts in demand proved extremely challenging to Old World producers. First, there was often no new land available to plant, particularly in controlled AOC regions. Equally restrictive were the regulations prescribing permitted grape varieties and winemaking techniques that greatly limited their flexibility. So, for example, when fashion switched away from sweeter white wines, the German wine industry which was constrained by tight regulations on sugar content, watched its exports drop from over 3 million hectoliters in 1992 to under 2 million just five years later. But the biggest problem was that declining demand at home and a loss of share in export markets had caused a structural wine surplus popularly called the European wine lake. The EU’s initial response was to pay farmers to uproot their vineyards, leading to 500,000 hectares (13% of production) being uprooted between 1988 and 1996. A parallel â€Å"crisis distillation program† provided for the EU to purchase surplus wine for distillation into industrial alcohol. An average of 26 million hectoliters (15% of total production) was distilled annually in the decade since 1999. In a 2006 reform proposal, the EU aimed to uproot a further 200,000 hectares equal to the size of the US wine industry and gradually phase out crisis distillation. Critics contended that despite their intent to move towards more market-driven policies, the EU regulators were still dealing with challenges from the supply-side perspective of the grape growers.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Kurt Lewins Model Of Change Information Technology Essay

Kurt Lewins Model Of Change Information Technology Essay Change management is a well planned and organized execution of a process that helps an organization in transferring from a existing state to a state that is defined to be achieved by the Managers of the organization. Change management process involves studying the present system of the organization, analyzing the pros and cons of the present System and Planning Changes accordingly. This change can be achieved by Implementing Change management Procedures like Automation etc. This Involves Planning of the Change management Process and Using a relevant technology to implement the Change Management. Conceptualizing change: Issues of change: In the present business world Change has become a mandatory tool for an organization to sustain in the market no matter whether the organization is small, medium or large. Todays organizational success depends on identifying key areas of change, what tools to be used for implementing the change to these key areas and how good changes are implemented. Managers of the organization play a key role in implementing the change management, the reason being change management can see many serious issues arising internally within the organization or outside the organization i.e. in the organizations business. Managers have to properly weigh out all the pros and cons of implementing the Change Management and be prepared to handle the issues that arise in the process. Levels of change: Alpha level change: It is a change in which the changes are done instantly and is done in a proper and an organized way in a company. For instance if a change is brought in a single wing it effects the entire company. Beta level change: This change is known as the level two changes in which the change is proper and is done in step by step process.. The Change is done gradually. Gamma level change: This three changes is a little bit risky and complex change. It takes a lot of time to implement and we are not aware of the consequences. Change is required due to the following : Schematic procedures should be implemented intermittently when there is a need for change Innovative thoughts should be designed and Implemented such that an era of innovative comes into picture Effective means of communication to represent the change Accomplishment of the desired state through the innovative team Force field analysis: A force field analysis is a very useful technique to use when you are considering any type of change in which people are involved. This is analysis is very use full when we want to implement a new product or new service. In terms of Kurt Lewin the things that can used instead are : Find out the balance of power involved in issue Find out the boons and banes of the change. Know about the restraining forces and driving forces The ways of the above model are described as follows: Describe the current state and desired state. Knowing analysis the current situation related to proposed change. Interrogate and discuss all the forces. For each force allocate scores using a numeric scale which are weak and strong for example extremely week=1 and extremely strong=7. Tells about the forces by putting them on driving force on to the left right. . Kurt lewins model of change: Kurt lewins theory consists of three phases namely: Unfreezing Change Refreezing Steps involved in unfreeze are: The first step involves preparing the organization to understand and accept that the change has to take place. There should support from senior management team of organization. Set up a necessitate change To achieve the required vision of change communication is required. Alert of any remarks and doubts among the employees. Steps involved in change are: Discussing among the changes and plans that are to be implemented to attain better benefits and results thus preparing each and every individual against the change that is to be implemented. Instantly solve the problems and maintain secrecy. For different techniques and strategies that are to be implemented there should be proper gathering. The main idea of the theme is to achieve better results in a short run. Refreeze: We should analyze on the boons and banes of the organization. We should co-operate with the present authority, make a sketch of accurate organizational skeleton and should have an eye on the things going around Organization should provide proper training and keep updating everything. The occurrence of a fail? There is monitoring by the senior team The management at the middle level oppose the change. Improper analysis a design or a sketch and unity. There is no proper team management. Inadequate use of the IT resources. Low communication skills. Poor performance management. If there is no appropriate management Calling for a change: System model change: Seven -s model is the following that is used to know about the company and its accuracy. It shows the seven elements they are as follows. style skills systems, strategy structure shared values and staff. For all the seven -s to be affective the company should have a high degree. All the seven-s are interconnected so if there is single change it would affect the others correspondingly. We can just focus on the one required topic separately rather than all others. Hence for any organization to get boosted up it requires all the seven elements. The first 3 elements involves the hardware of organization the other four elements involves software to use a computer based analogy. Combining all the elements they will provide a managerial system that each and every element should be managed by manager itself. Shared values: All the seven -s are interconnected to each other. They are generally known as super goals. They are the companys general guiding rules and concepts. Generally any company is identified by the values. The values that are usd are both implicit and explicit. Structure: Structure the name itself tells us that it monitors with the thinks that are present it. It describes about the hierarchy of the organization and the division of the roles among different people. Systems: It generally involves with the different flow of operations that include the raw process and the system support. These generally consist of capital allocation, management system and business system. Strategy: It is a technique which an organization chooses to move ahead in the mean future. To reach to its destination. Style: Style generally consists about the managerial behavior that are followed in fulfilling the goals and tell how they spend the time. It not only tells about the organizations way that supports the employees but also tells about them in the out side world. Skills: It tells about the organizations different strategies that are followed. Staff: It describes about the peoples mind set, integrated, trained, and how they are convinced in molding their careers. The above described elements are blatantly related to one another, and by changing one of them effects the other. So if we want to make a change to one of the model it is important that we analyze all the models and the concepts. 6. Change issue related to personal experience: Introduction: Completing my UG in India, my future ambition was to pursue my masters for any reputed country as my fate was good I have been to UK to do my masters. In the mean while mean of my processing towards the UK I have been placed in a company. In which I was a software developer.. My team was a batch of the people that was including me and my seniors at my work. We all together worked on a project that relates to allocating staff quarters for a company named NIA(New India Insurance). It was a newly established company and deals with the IT out sourcing Changing manual process to automated process: Before Staff Quarter Allotment has been automated, New India Assurance had followed a manual process For Staff Quarter Allotment which involves Filling Staff Quarters Details on a paper by the applicants and going to their Head Office and Submitting the application. There after the application will be sent for approval to the concerned Department, once the application is approved a written letter is sent to Employee Giving the details of Staff Quarters that is allotted to him. This entire process used to take around 30-45 days as there are around 10000 employees in the Organization. But with the automation of this process, The Staff Quarter Allotment would be completed in 2-3 days. Employees Fill in an online Staff Quarter Application and submit it then the application is routed to his administrator immediately for approval and the moment Administrator approves the Application the application status is updated on the application and the employee can see the status on his application. As this entire process is online so it is advantageous to both the employees and the Organization as it saves allotment time to a great extent and it also removes all the tedious manual approach as well as maintaining data on paper which can be lost anytime. The allotment process would be transparent to users as well as the management. Issues of change: Reluctance from Users: We have faced few issues from the users as they were reluctant to use Staff Quarter online Facility provide by us since the users are not aware of the online process. We had to train users to use the online staff Quarter Allotment Application but we have faced a big reluctance from the users as they were not Comfortable using the online system. 2) Reluctance from administrators: Administrators were very reluctant to follow online process for Staff Quarters Allotment since online system clearly exposes transparency involved in manual process. The Word Transparency here deserves a bit of explanation here. The Administrators can use malpractices for approving Staff Quarters Applications. Malpractices include bribing, bias towards applicants, etc.. But because of the strong management support we got from New India Assurance we were able to conduct the training for users and to our surprise the users really shown a great interest in training when we explained them the advantages of online system over manual process. we were finally successful in completing the user training on a high note. This task wouldnt have been possible without support from New India Assurance management team and combined team effort of our developers, trainer and team leader. Level of change: Beta level change: The above changes are done in s step by step process and cannot be implemented in a single stretch. When compared to this change in my organization all the changes were made in an step by step process. Force field analysis: Driving forces: Importance given to individuals ideas There should be good relation between the higher officials and staff Support from the higher officials Interest shown by all the members to adopt change Restraining forces: Not clearly understanding the change Domination or leadership Poor communication between employees and management There should be a proper plan for a change. Lewins ice cube model: Unfreezing: To analyses and understand the concepts properly. To attain a change new ideas should be implemented The idea should be agreed by members in organization All the team members should work collectively. The design should be in a proper way Change: Discuss about what is to be done and that to be implemented for the future and its boons and banes on them. Keep all the things in disguise. The company has to make a gathering at regular intervals. It hs to make up a bench mark in every role it plays. Refreeze The plan was implemented to modify the view for each any every person in the company We need to first take care of the hurdles and put them down We are to get trained for all the required things. To achieve a change we developed elegant ways Proper help is to be extended by the head. Model of system change: Shared values: The organization will perform it process according to the requirements, beliefs and expectations. Structure: To achieve a change each and every task is properly structured and all be given equal chances and activities. Style: The manager should support making decisions, spending more time he should properly behave towards his employees. Staff: The staffs who will work for a change in organization are employees, trainer and managing director. Strategy: To achieve organization goal efforts should properly done by management and employees. Skills: The organization will show the better performance when change is implemented for example as quality levels are increased. Systems: Organization involves information management system, business system and actions done by day to day Conclusion: Change in our rganization is clearly explained as according to related theory. I came to know that different models used in above like kurts lewins model, system model, force field analysis plays a vital role. The majority aspects like meetings, communicating with employees, regular feedbacks, needs for change are managed in a proper way this lead to an great and victorious organization

Fossil Fuels Effects on the Environment :: Environment Ecology Ecological Impact Essays

Our world as it stands today is a truly magnificent place, amazing technological advances have been made over the years that have helped form a truly advanced place. However in order to achieve these technical advancements we need power. Many years ago the only power we needed or used was the power created with our own bodies, but as our society grew both larger and more intelligent we had to turn to other sources- the most obvious of those sources being fossil fuels. These almost â€Å"magical† resource including coal, natural gas, and petroleum, from millions of years ago, seemed the perfect solution to all our energy needs. Unfortunately we now realize that these resources have a very strong impact on the environment in the form of conventional pollution, and what could be even more severe greenhouse effect. There is a severe environmental impact in all stages of fossil fuel use including: recovery, transportation, preparation/ refining, and storage- not only the end use(the actual combustion) that most people think of. When recovering coal from the earth there are three major issues: The destruction of topsoil, acidic water runoff, and land subsidies. Some recovery issues with petroleum include drilling on land and offshore, gushers, and accidents. The transportation of fossil fuels can be a very risky proposition, with risk of oil pollution of the seas and accidents during routine operations. Petroleum transportation was brought to the forefront with the Exxon Valdez accident. The preparation/refining stage can produce sludge from coal cleaning plants and air/water pollution from petroleum refining. The storage of gasoline in underground tanks at your local gas station can be risky because those tanks have been known to leak. Almost all fossil fuel use is by combustion, the final stage of of fossil fuel. It produces waste products due to impurities in the fuel, especially particulates and various gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. These waste products may affect our environment and people, in harmful ways (â€Å"By† ). These oxides created during combustion combine with moisture in the air to form sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, and nitric acid. When it rains or snows, these acids are brought to Earth in what is called acid rain (Britannica ). Fossil Fuels' Effects on the Environment :: Environment Ecology Ecological Impact Essays Our world as it stands today is a truly magnificent place, amazing technological advances have been made over the years that have helped form a truly advanced place. However in order to achieve these technical advancements we need power. Many years ago the only power we needed or used was the power created with our own bodies, but as our society grew both larger and more intelligent we had to turn to other sources- the most obvious of those sources being fossil fuels. These almost â€Å"magical† resource including coal, natural gas, and petroleum, from millions of years ago, seemed the perfect solution to all our energy needs. Unfortunately we now realize that these resources have a very strong impact on the environment in the form of conventional pollution, and what could be even more severe greenhouse effect. There is a severe environmental impact in all stages of fossil fuel use including: recovery, transportation, preparation/ refining, and storage- not only the end use(the actual combustion) that most people think of. When recovering coal from the earth there are three major issues: The destruction of topsoil, acidic water runoff, and land subsidies. Some recovery issues with petroleum include drilling on land and offshore, gushers, and accidents. The transportation of fossil fuels can be a very risky proposition, with risk of oil pollution of the seas and accidents during routine operations. Petroleum transportation was brought to the forefront with the Exxon Valdez accident. The preparation/refining stage can produce sludge from coal cleaning plants and air/water pollution from petroleum refining. The storage of gasoline in underground tanks at your local gas station can be risky because those tanks have been known to leak. Almost all fossil fuel use is by combustion, the final stage of of fossil fuel. It produces waste products due to impurities in the fuel, especially particulates and various gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. These waste products may affect our environment and people, in harmful ways (â€Å"By† ). These oxides created during combustion combine with moisture in the air to form sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, and nitric acid. When it rains or snows, these acids are brought to Earth in what is called acid rain (Britannica ).

Monday, August 19, 2019

How Guitars Work :: essays research papers

How Guitars Work To properly understand the principles of how a guitar works, it is essential to understand the functions of sound waves and electromagnets. They play a key role in the function of the guitar, both in the acoustic and the electric. Sound Waves For us to hear, we need ears with an important piece, the eardrum. We hear sound because when a sound is created, there is a change in air pressure. Because of this change in pressure, waves are produced, flying all over the place. On the guitar, when the string vibrates, the change in air pressure causes the air particles to move around. There are air particles all around us, so when the sound wave crashes into these particles, they all collide until they reach our eardrums. When the air particles crash into our eardrum, they will hit against all the other components of the ear and the sound will enter our brain. Electromagnets Electromagnets need a source of energy (a battery, power outlet, etc.) In the electric guitar (because in the acoustic, electromagnets are inexistent) the power source comes from the amplifier, which gets its electrical current from a power outlet. Together, the electrical flow is made by the constant flow of electrons (e-). When the plug from the amp is attached to a source of energy, the electrons will flow to and through the wire. Basically, all an electromagnet does is collect electrons and sends them into a constant flow. What the electromagnets have to do with the guitar will be explained in detail at the Electric Guitar page. The Differences Between Acoustic And Electric Guitars Both electric guitars and acoustic guitars are great instruments that are the most commonly used in music. They have many similarities.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

What Is Calculus :: essays research papers

What is Calculus? A definition found of calculus in a dictionary was this; a method of computation or calculation in a special notation (as of logic or symbolic logic). The historical perspective of calculus is that people had a problem in finding areas and finding tangent lines. The thing that was discovered to figure these problems out was calculus. Some influential people in the development of calculus were Isaac Newton (1642-1727), and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Isaac Newton is considered on of the most influential men in the development of calculus. Newton at first kept all his discoveries to himself. He feared that people would not accept his work and disagree with them. He wrote one of the most important scientific books of all time, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. It took the work of another man to finally convince him to publish his work on calculus, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Leibniz is another influential man in the history of calculus. He taught himself mathematic s. Leibniz accomplished what Newton did, but was not recognized for his work as much as Newton was.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Calculus is important in my major of Biomedical engineering because there are many machines that are made possible for humans benefit. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is made possible for looking at internal tissues of the human body. Another example would be controlling chaotic behavior in the human heart. I think that calculus will be very helpful in my major, so it is important for me to understand it as best as I can.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I think that the class is going at a fast pace. I have to study a lot to keep up. It seems that lately I understand it, but on the last exam I made stupid mistakes. I need to get more practice done. I like the way you make us read the up coming sections. I get a better feel of what is being covered in class.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I find limits to be interesting to me. I sort of understood them, but I still have some problems in grasping the idea.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Homeland Security Essay

Risk management procedure is an important phase in introducing the anti-terrorist procedures aimed to secure certain residents in a specific area. Through this particular procedure, it is necessary that people are notified as to how much risk they are supposed to face in the process. Knowing the precautions that the target people are supposed to take should then help in the education that is given to people as to how they are supposed to face the different impending causes and later results of terrorism in the community (IC 2007 Internet). Once the people are already knowledgeable of what they are facing and what they are particularly at, they are then ready to face the challenges of the situation at a more prepared and confident phase. Knowingly, they are able to protect themselves from the results of impending terrorism. Vulnerability Assessment is also a vital part of the process which at the same time involves at least four other steps needed for consideration. The said steps are as follows: 1. Cataloging assets and capabilities (resources) in a system 2. Assigning quantifiable value and importance to the resources 3. Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential threats to each resource 4. Mitigating or eliminating the most serious vulnerabilities for the most valuable resources From the outlined process of vulnerability assessment, it is noticeable that the focus of the approach in assessing the vulnerability of the community is based upon the environment and the possible threats that are observed from (Stockton 2007 internet), acting towards the said threats could help in the process of making it easier for the society to see their capabilities in protecting themselves well from the threats of terrorism raised against them.